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Development of ultra-thin radiation-shielding paper by means of nanofiber modeling of morpho butterfly wing construction



Radiation ought to be elevated. The particle dispersion know-how of the shielding materials can enhance the shielding efficiency by rising these interactions. Due to this fact, for a medium composed of polymer and tungsten particles, the discount within the depth of the incident power by its interplay with a mass per unit space of the shielding materials could be calculated by the Beer–Lambert Equation20:

$$ start{array}{*{20}c} {I = I_{0} e^{ – mu d} } finish{array} $$


the place ({I}_{0}) is the incident photon depth, (I) is the attenuated photon depth, (rho ) (g cm−3) is the density, and (mu )(cm−1) and ({mu }_{m})(cm2 g−1) are the linear and mass attenuation coefficients, respectively. The thickness of the defend, (d)(cm), corresponds to the space at which the incident ray interacts with the particles of the shielding materials. Due to this fact, ({d}_{m}) (g cm−2) is the mass per unit space of the shielding paper, and when that is calculated because the thickness of the defend, it may be expressed as Eqs. (2), (3):

$$ start{array}{*{20}c} {mu_{m} = frac{mu }{rho } = frac{{I_{0} /I}}{rho d} = frac{{I_{0} /I}}{{mu_{m} }}} finish{array} $$


$$ start{array}{*{20}c} {d_{m} = left( {frac{mu }{rho }} proper) = mathop sum limits_{i} W_{i} left( {frac{mu }{rho }} proper)_{i} } finish{array} $$


the place ({W}_{i}) is the load ratio of the (i)th part21. This suggests that the variety of shielding supplies within the radiation defend have to be larger to extend the mass per unit space. Due to this fact, to enhance the shielding impact with a minimal improve in mass, the unit space of the shielding materials have to be elevated. The entire atomic cross-sectional space ({sigma }_{a})(cm2 g−1) of the shielding paper could be estimated utilizing the mass attenuation coefficient. By calculating the variety of atoms, the electron density could be obtained as:

$$ start{array}{*{20}c} {d_{m} = frac{{N_{A} sigma_{a} }}{N}} finish{array} $$


the place ({N}_{A}) is the Avogadro fixed. Due to this fact, the electron cross-sectional space could be obtained as:

$$ start{array}{*{20}c} {d_{m} = frac{1}{{N_{A} }}left[ {mathop sum limits_{i} frac{{f_{i} A_{i} }}{{Z_{i} }}(mu_{m} )_{i} } right]} finish{array} $$


the place ({Z}_{i}), ({f}_{i}), (({mu }_{m}{)}_{i}), and ({A}_{i}) are the atomic quantity, mole fraction, mass attenuation coefficient, and atomic weight of the ith part, respectively22.

To extend the dispersibility of the shielding materials particles, a brand new dispersion construction was utilized for producing the shielding paper. The dispersion of the shielding materials was carried out to widen the entire atomic cross-sectional space, and the morpho butterfly wing construction was chosen as the simplest mannequin. Determine 1 schematically reveals using the multi-layered construction of the morpho butterfly’s wing for X-ray shielding.

Determine 1

Magnified view of a morpho butterfly’s wing and its utility to X-ray shielding.

As proven in Fig. 2, the floor of the wings of the morpho butterfly is overlapping, and when considered from the cross part, it may be seen that it has a multi-layered thin-film construction. Structurally, the thickness, the refractive index of the wing, and the periodicity of the grating are designed to mirror solely blue wavelength23.

Determine 2
figure 2

Enlarged construction of the morpho butterfly wing.

X-rays utilized in medical establishments have the traits of low turnover and are very straight. Due to this fact, if they’re shielded with a multi-layered defend just like a morpho butterfly wing construction, the cross-sectional space of the photon collision unit could be widened, and the shielding impact is anticipated to extend. Due to this fact, as a result of the identical sample could be applied by means of nanofibers, supplied a tungsten shielding materials could be grafted onto such a construction, structural dispersion can be utilized to enhance the shielding efficiency.

The proposed shielding construction accommodates two constituent supplies, tungsten and polyurethane. As shielding materials, powdered tungsten (tungsten, W, 99.9%, < 4 µm, NanGong XinDun alloys spraying Co. Ltd., China) was used. The tungsten powder was crushed for five min after which dried in an oven at 60 °C for twenty-four h to regulate the particle measurement. The polymer used with tungsten was polyurethane (PU, P-7195A, M.W. 100,000–150,000, Songwon, Korea) that was dried below the identical circumstances as tungsten. N-dimethylformamide (DMF, 99.5%, Daejung, Korea) was used as a solvent to dissolve the polymer. Two solvents had been used to arrange the shielding paper; chloroform (95%, Duksan, Korea) was used as a poor solvent to regulate the volatilization charge of the solvent, and DMF to dissolve the polymer. The preparation technique of the spinning resolution is proven in Fig. 3. First, the tungsten was positioned in a 20 mL glass bottle. Subsequently, 5.165 g of DMF and a couple of.785 g of chloroform had been added, dispersed for 1 min with an ultrasonic grinder, and blended utilizing a magnetic stirrer (Laboratory stirrer/sizzling plate, PC-420, Corning, Mexico) at 600 rpm. As well as, 2.05 g of PU was added and, after 10 min, the pace of the stirrer was decreased to 220 rpm, and the blending was continued for 12 h or extra till the polymer was fully dissolved and spun.

Determine 3
figure 3

Preparation of the spinning resolution used for the manufacturing of thin-film shielding paper.

To extend the dispersion energy of the shielding materials, electrospinning was maintained at 10 kV by controlling the voltage with a high-voltage energy provide (CPS-60K02VIT, Chungpa EMT Co., South Korea), as proven in Fig. 4. As well as, the spinning pace was adjusted in order that the circulation charge from a syringe pump (syringe pump, KDS100, SD Scientific Inc., Holliston, USA) was 1.0 mL h − 1. On this course of, as a result of the capability and assortment distance of the syringe have an effect on the formation of the nanofiber sample as a result of particle weight of tungsten, the syringe was repeatedly moved to type the nanofiber sample.

Determine 4
figure 4

Electrospinning technique to extend the dispersion energy of the shielding materials.

To breed the multi-layered construction of a morpho butterfly wing, an electrospinning approach was utilized that maintained the identical directionality. Generally, nanofiber mats are produced by irregularly distributing the nanofibers with out a mounted route in the course of the assortment step24,25. Nonetheless, if a nanofiber having a sample construction in a sure and common route is manufactured, errors ensuing from the irregular sample construction could be decreased when radiation passes by means of the interior sample of the nanofiber26,27. As well as, if a daily nanofiber sample is utilized, the compactness contained in the defend could be elevated with the identical quantity of defending materials. As proven in Fig. 5, the construction of the butterfly wing (Fig. 5a) and the construction of the polymer sample (Fig. 5b) had been discovered to match.

Determine 5
figure 5

Electrospinning of the shielding materials to extend its dispersion energy. (a) Magnified pictures of a morpho butterfly wing, and (b) results of implementing the identical sample by means of electrospinning.

The ultimate shielding materials dispersion circumstances are proven in Desk 1. Electrospinning was carried out by sustaining the space between the needle and the accumulating plate at 13–15 cm, the humidity at 25–40%, and temperature at 22–25 °C. Moreover, 10 mL of the electrospinning resolution was electrospun at 1 h intervals of 1 mL every. Owing to the load of the tungsten particles within the manufactured composite materials, the shorter the time for electrospinning after stirring, the higher the dispersion.

Desk 1 Electrospinning situation for preparation of nanofibers.

As well as, the nanofiber paper was subjected to a post-treatment course of 3 times for 10 s utilizing a warmth press (heating press, DHP-2, Dad Heung Science, South Korea) at a temperature of 40 °C and a strain of 3000 psi. This course of was repeated 5 instances to acquire a sheet of thin-film shielding paper with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The ready thin-film shielding paper was noticed with a subject emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM; S-4800, Hitachi, Japan) to investigate the diploma of dispersion28. Two completely different standards had been used for the remark, i.e., how effectively the particles the particles of the shielding materials had been dispersed and the way shut polymer sample was to the construction of the morpho butterfly wing.

The analysis of the shielding efficiency of the shielding paper was based mostly on the geometric circumstances proven in Fig. 629. The medical radiation used on this experiment was transformed into an efficient power, which is a single power. Due to this fact, to measure the half-value layer (HVL), the slope was calculated from the attenuation coefficient legislation ((I={I}_{0}{e}^{-mu x})), and the linear attenuation coefficient (mu ) was obtained from this slope, which was subsequently calculated from the HVL as 0.693/μ30. As well as, Hubbell’s mass attenuation coefficient desk was used to calculate the efficient power that has the identical worth because the HVL similar to the only power of the HVL obtained above31. The shielding charge of the shielding paper was calculated as ((1-frac{W}{{W}_{0}})instances 100)32, the place (W) and ({W}_{0}) are the doses measured with and with out a shielding paper between the X-ray tube and the dosimeter, respectively. Furthermore, the common of 10 measurements carried out utilizing an X-ray generator (Toshiba E7239, 150 kV–500 mA, 1999, Japan) was used for this goal. The dose detector used an Ion Chamber (Mannequin PM-30, 2019, USA). Moreover, to precisely measure the ionizing dosimeter, the correction issue for temperature and atmospheric strain was used after confirming that it was 1.0 at a laboratory temperature of twenty-two °C and 1 atm33.

Determine 6
figure 6

Experimental setup to judge the shielding efficiency of the shielding paper.

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